Architecture has been present as an artistic expression throughout the history of humanity to define and represent time periods, places and artistic trends throughout the world. There are as many architectural styles as different epochs in history, and today we will talk about some of the most relevant.
Throughout history, different architectural styles have been developed and they were evolving as societies changed over the centuries. That’s why architecture has had a symbolic character for many civilizations.
Contemporary architecture is that developed in our days, which means, the current architecture. Contemporary architecture is nourished especially by modern architecture in its architectural principles making substantial changes in form (shape), materiality and space usage.
This period is characterized by the continuous search for innovation in each of its phases, especially in the constructive and technological stages.
We can say that contemporary architecture does not correspond to an established period of history because it is in permanent development.
This architectural style encompasses a set of architectural movements that have been developed around the world during the 20th century.
It was mainly characterized by the simplification of forms. Unlike other previous movements, in Modern architecture, the ornaments are dispensed with. In addition, new materials such as steel and reinforced concrete are used.
One of the main characters of this architectural style is Antonio Gaudí. Some of its most relevant projects are the renowned Sagrada Familia Cathedral, and the Park Güell, both in the city of Barcelona.
Another representative building of this period is the Sydney Opera House, which belongs to the Expressionist movement. Its exterior design is composed of pieces of a hemisphere and the form of the roof has the shape of shells.
Renaissance architecture is one that covers the European artistic period during the 15th and the 16th centuries, and it was developed mainly in Italy. This style is essentially characterized by the desire to build perfect buildings, based on mathematical calculations to achieve harmony. They returned to the classical architecture by using arches and balustrade columns.
During this period, architects are considered interdisciplinary and humanist artists.
An example of Renaissance architecture is the Temple of San Pietro in Montorio, built in Rome in the 9th century by the architect Bramante.
The Gothic style in architecture includes buildings built from the end of the 12th century to the 15th century in Western Europe. According to its chronology, this style is located between the Romanesque and the Renaissance style.
This architectural style is reproduced mainly in the European Cathedrals. Some of the most representative characteristics are the pointed arches and the ribbed vaults, as well as the stained glass windows decorating large spaces of the walls.
An example of this type of architecture is the Cathedral of León, from the 13th century. Its stained glass windows are the most relevant of the Spanish Gothic buildings.
We know as classical architecture the buildings developed by the Hellenistic people during a period between the 7th century B.C. and the 5th century A.C. Within classical architecture historians also include Roman architecture, whose most important representations date from the VI century B.C.
In classical Greek architecture, we can differentiate three architectural styles: Doric order, Ionic order, and Corinthian order. The influence of these orders is actually evident in later times. The Romans, doing what they did best, acquired and later transformed the classical styles. In addition, they added two additional orders: the Tuscan and the composite.
An example of this type of architecture is the Parthenon, a rectangular-based temple located on the Acropolis of Athens, in Greece.